Atopic dermatitis and eczema
Atopic dermatitis, also called eczema, is the name under which it is called an outbreak of chronic nature that occurs in some people with sensitive skin. Under the heading of eczema or dermatitis include all skin lesions that itch and are red, scaly and exudative.
Examples of eczema include various types of skin diseases among the eczema is allergic to various substances such as metals, cosmetics, gloves, etc. It is also seborrhea eczema appearing in the most greasy face and atopic eczema. Atopic eczema is explained in this article is different from previous disease and can be called eczema, constitutional eczema or atopic dermatitis.
The term atop derives from Greek and means without or rare. This term brings together a range of allergic diseases or related to them that often occur in family groups. It is common to find family members who suffer or have suffered from asthma, hay fever, dust allergy and eczema in the form of atopic dermatitis. But one in five patients with atopic dermatitis has no history of atopic dermatitis or other allergic diseases.
Atopic dermatitis is a common disease and occurs in all parts of the world, affecting more than 5% of the population, being more common in urban and industrialized countries. This disease can occur at any age from infancy to adulthood. The skin lesions are extremely pruritic (itch).Most patients improve with age, disappearing injuries in the prepubertal period, however there are occasions that may become more and more difficult to treat injuries.
Features: When the disease appears in childhood, frequently called infantile eczema. Atopic dermatitis rarely develops in infants under 2 months old. The face is the area that is affected initially, and subsequently affects the folds (arms, knees and neck) hands and feet. Sometimes red patches appear all over the integument.
Injuries cause very itchy, oozing fluid and crusting are usually on the face and scalp but can appear anywhere. In an attempt to reduce the itching children tend to scratch the face and head with pillows and blankets. Crying babies are usually enough, especially at night. Most children get better much of the disease within two years. There are now treatments that can improve the disease before it is resolved spontaneously. In the years since the lesions tend to be drier and often scaly, affecting mainly the front of the elbow creases, behind the knee, face, neck and upper thorax. While these are the most common locations are found in many other locations. In adults, most often affecting the face and hands. The diagnosis of this entity is based on clinical features, distribution and evolution of eczema. On rare occasions it is warranted to evaluate diagnostic tests to patients.
Treatment: There is a treatment that resulted in a permanent cure, eczema usually heals over time. Most people can live comfortably with his eczema especially if they follow these recommendations. The treatment of atopic eczema includes the use of emollients, corticosteroids, antibiotics and antihistamines. In addition to these treatments is important to avoid aggravating factors of eczema are explained below.
1. Emollients: It is important to keep the skin soft and hydrated and reduce itching. The creams and emollients should be applied especially after bathing and whenever you notice dry skin, even if there is itching or red. Emollient should be applied after the bath, most often in the winter months and if you work in offices or places with air conditioning. There are plenty of emollients market traded, must find the one that is most convenient. You should try to apply it several times a day. Avoid lotions or creams that contain emollients perfume. The bath oil (mineral oil or lanolin) are well tolerated and helps keep skin hydrated. Creams containing urea are usually well tolerated, but in some cases can cause itching or stain.
a. Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids are useful as anti-inflammatory agents when applied to eczema and are actually more topical medication used to control the lesions of atopic dermatitis. Corticosteroids may apply ointments or salves acids in very dry areas or in more liquid creams for skin folds or areas where lesions are exudative, and hair lotions areas. The potency of steroids is very varied. The softer the corticosteroid hydrocortisone, which can be applied to the face or buttock without problem. It can be applied safely even if used for a long time, but the face should be used intermittently. The more potent corticosteroids should be used only for short periods of time. Generally more potent corticosteroids should be avoided in the face, underarms, English as they can produce a marked thinning of the skin and other problems. Usually prescribed different creams for different locations and situations. Corticosteroids should be applied twice a day outbreaks and when it comes to their control should try to space out your application. It is important to implement immediately after bathing when the skin is well hydrated. In cases of severe eczema you need to take corticosteroids by mouth or intramuscular, but generally must be made in short periods of time and under the supervision of a physician. Do not take steroids orally or intramuscularly if not prescribed specifically for the present outbreak.
b. inhibitors topical calcineurin – recently may have a new class of topical medications, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, which modify the response of lymphocytes involved in the lesions of atopic dermatitis, which have proved very useful in the treatment and control of moderate to severe atopic dermatitis, being particularly suitable for patients who do not have control of the disease after application of topical corticosteroids. These medications can be used for limited periods of time in patients over 2 years old and have not responded to standard treatments.
3. Antibiotics: Atopic dermatitis is often super infected with bacteria, particularly Staphylococcus aureus, which aggravates the eczema and results in areas of oozing and crusting. To prevent and control infection is useful to use antiseptics such as permanganate baths, soaps, chlorhexidine or povidone-iodine, may also apply topical antibiotics such as mupirocin or fusidic acid in the most extensive oral antibiotics as cephalosporins, cloxacillin, amoxicillin or erythromycin.
4. Antihistamines: Antihistamines by mouth are helpful in controlling outbreaks of hives and itching may also lower in patients with atopy. Conventional antihistamines such as hydroxyzine (Atarax) are especially useful at night, but can cause drowsiness which may represent a beneficial effect for the affections of atopic dermatitis. Antihistamines such as cetirizine newer can also be useful and has fewer side effects.
What are the risks of melanoma?
You can have a higher risk of developing melanoma in the following cases:
1. A family history of melanoma.
2. Skin and eyes.
3. Exposure to the sun (especially at a young age).
4. Prolonged exposure to coal tar products, and arsenic.
5. Have experienced one or more severe sunburns at any time in the past, especially in adolescence.
6. Numerous pigment spots, which are defects of the skin such as freckles, moles, and dark or light spots like freckles.
What are the symptoms?
Melanoma usually develops on exposed areas of skin, but can occur anywhere in the body, including under the nails and eyes. The most common symptom in the early stages of melanoma is a change in a mole that you have had since childhood. This mole may have the following characteristics:
1. Asymmetry: One half unlike the other half.
2. Irregular edge: It may be toothed or with a poorly defined border.
3. The color varies from one area to another may have the following colors: brown, dark brown, black, white, red, or blue.
4. Diameter greater than 6 mm in general. Sometimes the melanoma can develop in normal skin, where there was no mole or blemish above.
The immune system is able to detect and destroy cancer cells as they appear, so that can induce an inflammatory reaction in melanoma and destroy it completely. But sometimes this defense mechanism fails cancer.
Diagnostics of melanoma
If there is any reason to suspect a skin cancer, the doctor will use one or more methods to determine if the disease is actually present. The doctor will look at the size, shape, color and texture of the area in question, and if it bleed or peel.
It will explore the rest of the body to see if you have spots or moles that may be associated with skin cancer. It may be necessary to ask other questions or other tests, depending on his health, in particular.
If the doctor thinks that an area may submit a skin cancer melanoma, it will take a skin sample from the suspicious area for examination under a microscope. This is called a skin biopsy. For this test can be used different methods. The method chosen depends on the type of skin cancer melanoma, the same location in the body and the size of the affected area.